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Photographer's Note

A Cuba ci son capitato quasi per caso, grazie a due biglietti gratuiti messi a disposizione da Airfrance. Ho conosciuto questo sito mentre cercavo di capire quale fosse il miglior itinerario da seguire: quando viaggio voglio sempre preparami, leggere e studiare.
Non ero impreparato, quindi.
Ma la realt pi grande di ogni immaginazione, di ogni libro e di ogni racconto.
Il viaggio a Cuba segna l'anima e provoca continuamente. Non si finisce mai di pensare di fronte contrasto inimmaginabile tra il dramma della povert di una societ ferma agli anni '50 e il paradiso naturale in cui tale dramma riaccade ogni giorno.
Uno dei primi impatti con la realt cubana il razionamento alimentare (distribuci髇 planificada de alimentos) cui ogni Cubano sottoposto.
Tutti i Cubani possiedono una "Libreta de abastecimiento", da utilizzare nelle "tiende de la Caridad" statali, presenti in ogni quartiere o villaggio.
Le tiendas hanno la scheda di ogni cittadino che devono rifornire ed ogni volta che questo preleva un prodotto viene spuntato dalla scheda. Non tutti i prodotti che sono segnati nelle Libreta arrivano nella quantit spettata. Per esempio si dovrebbe aver diritto a 72 libre di riso all'anno, ma ne possono arrivare una quantit pro capite molto inferiore. Alcuni prodotti, come il lucido da scarpe, non sono distribuiti pi da anni. Quando arrivano i prodotti non sempre bastano per tutti e quindi chi arriva tra i primi riesce a comprare quello che disponibile mentre gli ultimi non riusciranno a comprare tutto quello che c'era. Per questo quando arriva il "mandato", cos si chiamano i prodotti venduti con la Libreta, si vedono delle corse furibonde verso queste tiendas e la gente che ne a conoscenza v di corsa dai vicini per avvisarli dicendo: "Lleg el mandato!".
La Libreta non sufficiente al fabbisogno alimentare e quindi tutti sono costretti a comprare degli alimenti anche nei "mercados agropecuarios" nei quali sia paga poco ed in pesos, oppure nelle "tiendas de precios diferenciados" o in quelle chiamate "shopping" nelle quali si paga di pi ed in Pesos Convertibles.

The vast majority of Cuban families rely[citation needed], for their food intake, on the Libreta de Abastecimiento (literally, "Supplies booklet") distribution system, instated on March 12, 1962.[1] The system establishes the rations each person is allowed to buy through the system, and the frequency of supplies. Most of these products are distributed at the local bodega (convenience store specialized in distributing these rations), and in the case of meat, poultry or fish, at the local carnicer韆 (meat store).[1] Other industrial products are also included in the libreta, such as cigarettes, cigars, matches and cooking fuels (liquified gas, alcohol, kerosene or even charcoal, depending on each person抯 means for cooking). Other products can also be distributed through this method, such as light bulbs and other home supplies.
Products included in the libreta vary according to age and gender. For example, children below 7 years old are provided 1 litre of milk per day, as are the elderly, the ill, and pregnant women.[1] Adults above 65 years are entitled to different allowances, as well. Granting a special diet requires presentation of a medical certificate which confirms the health condition and what product requirements this condition has.
A Government office, specially created for this task, the OFICODA, distributes the libreta to all citizens each year, in the form of a small booklet. This booklet contains pages indicating the exact number and age groups of persons composing the family nucleus (typically, one booklet is released per family nucleus), as well as eventual dietary indications. A person抯 products are distributed only at the bodega that serves their area of official residence. A person cannot receive their products somewhere else, so each change of address requires returning to the OFICODA to update the booklet's data, and those living away from their registered addresses have to return to the previous area for their supplies.
Products distributed through the libreta mechanism are sold at subsidized prices, which have been kept more or less stable since its inception (the mean salary of a worker has varied very little since, as well[citation needed]). The libreta contains a page for every month, where the clerk marks what products were retired, and in which quantities. Cubans are required to present the libreta each time they buy the rations.
At its inception, the rationing system included not only food products, but industrial products as well. Along with the libreta, a tear-off coupon booklet was distributed, whose purpose was to set the allowances for industrial products, mainly clothing, shoes, and home products, as well as rationing the toys sold to families with children (which were allowed 3 different toys per child per year, usually sold near or at January 6, the Three Kings Day, or D韆 de Reyes). After the demise of the Eastern Bloc in 1991, Cuba entered the "Special Period" and industrial products were no longer distributed through this system.
A specific set of laws regulate the functioning of the system, as well as establishing penalties for its misuse. Most irregularities deal with clerks not signing the products in the booklet, or signing them incorrectly, and weighting of the products distributed. Citizens could be legally liable if they don't promptly inform the local OFICODA of any changes in the composition of the family nucleus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationing_in_Cuba

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